Photo Chemical Machining Process

Photochemical machining also known as PCM is a process that involves various important steps. Every step is an important condition for the next. Even though various companies that specialise in producing parts that use the photo chemical machining (PCM) process in Australia will usually be unique, the basic operations are typically similar.


Once a material is cut to a sheet size that is required it will be chemically cleaned to remove foreign debris, oil, photo chemical machininggrease, dust or any other types of contaminants to ensure the photoresist will be able to adhere to the surface of this metal. In the past, the more common types of cleaning techniques used on metal sheets associated with the PCM industry would involve solvent degreasing using solvents like trichloroethylene. However, the hazards to the environment soon became apparent and in the late part of the 80’s a company known as PEI was the very first of the PCM manufacturers that featured a facility that was solvent-free.

Currently, the majority of the metals are now cleaned with the use of mild soaps. This involves feeding the sheets of the metals through a 4-chamber or stage conveyor spray-machine. Each of the stages or chambers contains various concentrations of the cleaning agents including a 3-stage rinsing process after they have been cleaned. The rinsing process uses a high-pressure rinsing technique inside 2 of the chamber with the use of standard city water while the final rinse involves DI (Deionised) water. This last rinse makes sure that the metal is ready for the PCM process.


The following step involves applying the photoresist. This technique involves a dry-film photoresist that is rolled over the metal sheets that uses a lamination hot-roll system that sensitises the metal. This stage of the process the sheets of metal are processed within a safelight environment.

Developing the Photo Tool

Photochemical etching makes use of Mylar film to create a “working tool” compared to the “hard” tools that are used with metal stamping. Photo-tools can be created using a fully-dimensional drawing or a CAD file that features detailed dimensions. This process involves a tooling engineer that redraws the part. When the image is ready, it will be arrayed over the metal, and the image is used with a “laser photo-plotter” and then created onto the Mylar film.


In the area of printing the image is then transferred onto the sheets of metal in the way of activating a polymer in the photoresist. This is when the metal is placed between the photo tool (pieces of film), and this panel is then exposed to a UV light. Once printed onto the sheet it is moved to what is known as the wet-process area where it is developed.


Every sheet that has undergone a coating and exposure has to go now into the developing conveyorised system. Unexposed areas of the photoresist are then rinsed with an alkaline solution that exposes the metal that is bare that leaves resist on the areas that need protection from an etchant. This process produces a durable and adherent image on either side of the sheet of metal that will be equipped for the process of etching.

Transponder Key Technology

The transponder keys are different to the traditional keys when it comes to their ability to transmit specialized radio signals onto a remote-receiver. The more common use for these key types today is in different types of automobiles. You are able to lock, unlock and start a vehicle by a receiver located close to the steering wheel that acknowledges that a key is present. Every key will be programmed to the vehicle with an aim to reduce vehicle thefts.

How Do Transponder Keys Work?

The transponder keys have been in use since 1996. Inside the plastic handles features a carbon microchip and glass. It is the microchips which electronically transmit signals to the receiver inside the vehicle. In general, these receivers are close to the vehicle’s steering column. Each of the keys are programmed for specific the vehicle which contains a unique serial-number. When starting the vehicle, it will need to acknowledge that the transponder-key is present, otherwise the vehicle will fail to start. The same applies to the functions that involve unlocking and locking the vehicle.

About Bypassing

There happen to be a few ways in order to bypass the requirement of a transponder key. These include specialized kits, but it is essential to ensure that the kit will not affect the warranty on the vehicle before going ahead with this option. One of the better alternatives is to ensure the owner of the vehicle keeps an additional transponder key in a safe and accessible place, should they misplace the original key. A locksmith or the dealership of the vehicle are usually able to make duplicates of these keys or supply a key if the owner of the vehicle loses the key. In certain instances, a specialized pin-code will be a necessity in order to place an order for an extra transponder key, which is made available through certain locksmiths and dealerships.

Does Transponder Technology Reduce The Risks Associated With Car Theft?

While a transponder key can result in a more complex way for a thieve to gain entry into a vehicle, there are many that know how to bypass these systems, or they simply transport the vehicle away from the location in the way of towing it. To date, there is nothing that makes a vehicle entirely theft-proof, yet technology associated with the transponder keys reduces the levels of theft in vehicles in a surprisingly effective manner.

Additional Items Which Use Transponder-Key Technology

Transponder-key technology is not exclusive to only vehicles. This technology also features in business and residential alarm systems, in automatic garage doors and gates, in remotes, along with a number of lockable elements.

In conclusion, today the transponder keys are highly sensitive. This means they can sustain damages if they are dropped. For this reason, it is suggested that you treat these keys with care to prevent unnecessary issues. However, if a transponder key is accidentally damaged or dropped, it is always suggested to hire services of experienced locksmiths or the dealership to replace these chip keys.

Earthmoving Equipment Hire

Earthmoving equipment is used for digging, pushing and transporting earth from one place to another, or to load it into trucks for further transportation. You will find such equipment on almost all construction sites when site clearing and foundation works are in process. They come in different sizes and with different capabilities and need skilled operators to run them.

earthmoving equipment

earthmoving equipment

As the work to be done by the equipment is of a short duration, compared to the length of a project, it can always make sense to hire them instead of buying them. The companies that hire them out will also have their own operators and maintenance team, and the project is not burdened with the running and maintaining of the equipment. Most of this equipment is crawler mounted or has very big tires that are not suitable for normal roads and highways. The equipment then has to be brought to the construction site in special transporters. This is a factor that has to be taken into consideration when hiring any earthmoving equipment, as long transportation distances can greatly increase the overall cost of the hired equipment.

When you are required to hire earthmoving equipment, you must first estimate the quantity of earth that has to be excavated and moved, the dumpsites which can be at a distance, and the capacity or productivity of the equipment that can do the necessary work within the time you have allotted for it. The company hiring this equipment must be located nearby so that transportation costs are under control. Hiring charges are hourly, daily or monthly, and any idle time is always to your account. You must, therefore, make sure that any equipment that you hire is kept busy, and sent away as soon as the work is finished. At times, it may even be cheaper for you to send away the equipment and bring it again if your work for it is intermittent.

Your hired equipment supplier should be able to provide you with all the other ancillary equipment that you may need for moving earth, like tippers, graders, dozers, dump trucks and other equipment. Some of the companies may even agree to transport the debris and earth at fixed costs. Check to see whether the equipment being offered for hire is in good working condition and is well maintained. They must also have proper safety standards and attention to safety while doing the work. They must have competent mechanics and maintenance staff that attends immediately to the breakdown in equipment.

Before you hire the equipment insist on their professionals visiting your project and understanding the extent of the work that you have for earthmoving. Their experience and knowledge of the capability of their equipment may help you to hire equipment that is really suited for the work that needs to be carried out. Make sure that you have facilities to park the equipment when it is not in use, and also to ensure its security and safety. You may at times, also be required to provide them the necessary fuel and lubrication.

Business Technology Equipment Financing

One of the most important elements of any technology business is finance. The starting capital, as well as the running cost, is very important for a business. Having enough money to start, run, maintain and update business is what makes a business stand out ahead of the competition. The wise decision for any business is to make sure that the equipment being implemented in the firm are up to date. The new equipment increases the efficiency of the business and lowers the cost of production since the output is more than the input. This is what enables a business to make profits.

Technology Equipment Financing

However, obtaining new equipment financing is not an easy task, funding the purchase of new equipment is actually the most challenging and intimidating part. But, this does not mean that the options available for funding new equipment purchases are like rocket science. There are numerous options available today through which you can be able to fund your equipment purchases without any hustles. It is imperative that you find an option that is most suitable for you as well as for the business. The intelligent decision would be to do thorough research on the available option so as to make sure that you find one that is best for you.

The Top Four Options For Funding New Equipment Purchases For Your Business

Here are some of the factors you might want to consider before choosing an option for funding new equipment purchases for your business:

– The interest rates of the funding option.

– The fees as well as the policies of the funding option.

– The funding option’s review and reputation

Taking the above factors into consideration ensures that you obtain nothing less but the best. Before you decide which funding option to go for when purchasing new equipment, it is also important to ask yourself several questions to act as a guide when making the purchase. Some of these questions include:

– What assets or equipment needs to be purchased?

– Do you have other creditors?

– Is the funding tax efficient?

If you are aiming at expanding your business or simply keeping up with the latest technology and trends, a great funding option for purchasing new equipment will be of great help.

Here are the top four financing options for Technology Equipment Financing

1. Bank loans – This is the most common option for funding the purchase of new types of equipment. Bank rates mostly offer lower rates and the longest terms. However, getting a bank loan is a lengthy process. You might have to wait for a couple of months before the funds end up in your banking account. Banks also tend to loan against quality collateral to offset the risk of the loan.

2. Bank overdraft – Bank overdrafts provide quick and flexible cash flow for the business. Bank drafts are also very simple and convenient but are not suitable for funding the purchase of expensive types of equipment since the amount provided is too small. However, if you intend to purchase a few pieces of equipment that are not that expensive, bank overdrafts can work for you.

3. Cash advances – Cash advances are the best option for getting money upfront. It’s simple, this means that you can receive money to make your purchases before any invoices or debts have been paid. Cash advances do not burden you with collateral or fixed monthly payments. However, this option should be used only when it is extremely necessary since they can be harmful to your business.

4. Assets finance – Assets-base lending is similar to the mortgage. This implies that after you receive the funds and make the purchase if you do not meet your obligation, the asset is repossessed. No collateral is required which makes this option very useful in purchasing new types of equipment.

Best Web Platform for e-Commerce Sites

Working on the Internet can be very exciting, but draining at the same time. However, when you are running an e-commerce website the challenge you will have to face going to come from having to pick out the best web platform for the hosting of the website. By knowing about three of the best, though, it will be easier for you to select the one that is going to work best for your site and know if it will help you in making sales or driving your customers away. Please note, that most of these are platforms that you can work on without any extra help from designers if you want.

WordPress is one of the most common ways to power a website. However, since it is so common a lot of people do not think about it being able to power e-commerce websites. That is completely wrong as people will find out that it is going to make it easier for you to set up the website on your own and with the additional plugins you can easily add in some of the other features that you would want to have on your website.

Weebly is a website development platform that is going to be able to provide people with an easy to use platform that makes it easier for them to develop their site. What makes this even better is the fact this is a program that is starting to gain in popularity and while it is not free to use as an e-commerce platform or as a self-hosted website, it is one that is going to make it easier for people to set up and not really have to be concerned about the cost being so high that they are unable to run their website because it is expensive to operate.

Basic HTML coding is another form of the platform that people can use on their website and know it is going to make it easier for people to set up a website. However, they need to realize it is going to be a very hard way to set up a website because it is going to make it difficult to update and will require coding for all of the websites. So this is going to be a factor that people need to consider because while it is something they can do on their own, it is one method that will take quite a bit of time and effort on their part.

When you decide to take your business and launch it into an online e-commerce store, you will find it can be nearly impossible to do at times. By knowing about the three best e-commerce platforms, it will be easy for people to get the right platform and know it is going to allow them to make a living off of their websites and storefront, instead of having to rely on the traditional method of making a living with a brick and mortar company.

Locating Underground Objects with Ground Penetrating Radar

How To Locate Underground Objects

I have recently just moved into a new home in Toronto Ontario, I am very pleased and excited to move into my new home. I earlier used to live in New York so the weather is something that I am aware of since it is kind of the same. What I like is that the Summer in Toronto is still a lot better than the Summer is in New York. So, what I have thought about and have been thinking about for quite some time is to get a built-in swimming pool this time around. This time I would love to get a built-in swimming pool in my backyard as I feel it would just be a lot more fun.

The only issue with getting a swimming pool in my backyard is that I would need to locate underground objects or even concrete testing can be done. You want to make sure that your pipes can fit through and that there is not anything else underneath there. To do that you need to get a ground penetrating radar. Instead, of getting one on my own I decided on hiring a company to do for me as it would just be a lot easier.

I have called a couple companies that locate underground objects with penetrating radar, but they all seem to be booked for 2 weeks. In 2 weeks time I want my swimming pool installed and ready to go, so I need to find someone who have complete their service around this week and the sooner the better for me. I am hoping that I can get all of this work done with the detecting, so I can quickly contact people that can do the swimming pool for me. I want to get all of this done, so can enjoy August with the new pool.

Overall, if you know of a company that could help detect the objects, could you please let me know. I have contacted a bunch and they are quite busy for the next week. I will be contacting more today, but I thought just in case I will ask everyone on here, since I could use a little extra help. Also, if any one of you also built a home swimming pool I would love to know if there is anything else that important that I should know. I feel like any sort of information that is helpful I should know, I would love if you guys could tell me with more important information.

Custom Web Design and Development

Custom web design and development can be a rather expensive proposition, but it can be worthwhile if you are looking to create a very sophisticated website.

In a lot of cases, it makes sense to opt for a simple WordPress website – these days, a turnkey installation of WordPress with a common theme and some quickly added content can still look quite sophisticated and will impress a lot of visitors, as well as be more than enough to do the job of bringing in footfall to your bricks and mortar store. Indeed, thanks to the power of WooCommerce, you can even run an e-commerce website via WordPress, even if you aren’t a developer or a marketing wizard.

However, there are some times when it makes sense to pay for custom website design and development. For example, if you expect that your website will get a huge amount of traffic, then you will want to make sure that the website can cope with that. WordPress – while a brilliant platform, is one that can be a little resource demanding. Paying for a lightweight, highly customized and carefully crafted a website that contains “no bloat” is a good idea.

You may also want custom web development if you are putting together a more complex game site, a video streaming site, or a social network of some form – anything where the functionality you require goes beyond the norm.

custom web designIf you are thinking of hiring a web designer, make sure that you understand exactly what you will be getting from them. With business websites, it is vital that you know you will be getting a site that will perform well, and that is secure. All too often, amateur programmers fail to sanitize inputs, encrypt passwords, verify data, trap exceptions, and take care of security. This may be fine for a casual project was done by a hobbyist, but if you are processing customer data, then you are putting your reputation, your livelihood, and your customer’s personal and financial security at risk if your site is poorly coded.

Do not take chances with bad code. Make sure that the programmers you work with have a good reputation, and ask to see examples from their portfolio. The back-end code must be robust and secure (it’s hard for you to check this, admittedly, if you aren’t a developer yourself), and the front-end code should be valid and look good in most browsers (this is something that you can confirm using the W3C validation tool).

Ask for a quote for the website design that you have in mind, and ask them to lay out milestones so that you can keep track of the project while it is in development. Make sure that you will get the source code so that you can modify it if necessary (and that the code is not encrypted), and also make sure that you are in full control of the domain name and the hosting – or that if you allow them to host your site, that you are the administrative contact for the domain so you can move it if necessary. This will help to ensure that you don’t one day lose your site because the developer goes under, loses interest, or decides to try to extract more money from you by holding your domain hostage.

There’s a lot to be said for custom WordPress web design work, but it isn’t always necessary. Think about what you want and research the best ways to achieve it before you spend money on a large job that isn’t necessary.

Concrete Testing: What Equipment is Used?

There are a variety of manufacturers on the market that offer a large range of the concrete testing equipment in association with fresh concrete. Some of these machines include shrinkage-determination testing machines, rheometers for paste and mortar and rheometers used for fresh concrete and air entrainment meters.

The Air Entrainment Meter

Air Entrainment Meters are utilized to measure air content in the freshly-mixed motor that is associated with the principle of air-pressure compensation. This machine uses a pressure-chamber where a predefined-pressure is created. Once the overflow-valve has been opened, this pressure will be compensated about the test-pot that contains the mixed mortar. The drop in pressure is then measured to define the air-content inside this mortar.

Air entrainment can be described as the deliberate production of bubbles of air in mortar or concrete. Water typically becomes trapped in this mixture as it begins to harden. This water will eventually evaporate which results in a porous cavity. These particular pores are what result in a weakness in mortar or concrete during the stages of freeze and thaw cycles. Air entrainment meters are used to measure the air trapped in the mix. The design of these units will allow for an easy-storage on any workstation.

Features Of Air Entrainment Metersconcrete testing machine

•Simple operation

•Extreme sturdiness

•Great accuracy

•Designed to offer ease in service

Air Entrainment Meters are made out of a cast aluminum that features locking bolts and a palm grip to offer the upper section and test pot with an airtight-seal. There are two balls cocks that come with the machine to fill up with the required water as well as to vent air. The air will be compressed using a hand-pump built into the machine. The connection-valve used for initial pressure as well as the overflow-valve is combined inside the pressure-chamber. These machines feature a connection-valve uses a needle-valve that has a knurled head-screw. Between the test-pot and pressure chamber is the over-flow valve used for pressure-compensation operates using a valve-rocker. On the pressure-chamber is the pressure-valve with a scale that displays the readings that feature a range between 0-100 vol%.

Shrinkage Cone Used For Concrete And Cement

Shrinkage cones are created with the double type of “wall metal vessel” that provides easy cooling and heating that makes use of external types of “liquid temperature control unit.” The laser-beam is used to measure early expansion and shrinkage in building materials, concrete and cement using a one micron-resolution.

The patented-innovation of Shrinkage Cones make it a possibility to measure the expansion and shrinkage of fluid type building materials in the first few minutes or hours after mixing has begun. Expansion of building material has been registered as touch-free as well as extremely exact using the laser beam. There will be no mechanical-coupling that occurs between the sensor and the fluid. To make sure the measured-distance relates with the relative-length change in the material a specimen container is used.

The change in length is then registered using a 1/10 micron resolution, and the values for this measurement are digitized and then stored by software that comes with this system. This software stores the rel. Humidity, temperature and length change.

The Measurement Procedure

•The fluid “building material” is filled into the specimen container that is cone formed

•This container is then positioned underneath the laser-unit mounted on the “high performance” boom stand

•The adjust for the Automatic offset can be completed using a mouse click on the PC

•The autonomous data-logger registers data over several weeks using an “integrated CF-card memory

•The data-logger uses a network-interface, and the data can be readout with just about any software such as Firefox and Internet-Explorer

More information about concrete testing for the construction industry here